aluminium nitrate explosion

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The explosion claimed 22 lives, with a further 56 wounded. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. Ammonium nitrate is shock sensitive when mixed with titanium, tin, or aluminum. Higgins Company plant was destroyed by a spontaneous heating in a pile of mixed fertilizer. In addition, finely dispersed mixture of four components (ammonium nitrate, aluminum, powdered sugar, and TNT in a proportion of 76: 8: 12: 4) was used. And just five years ago, an estimated 800 tons of ammonium nitrate fueled a warehouse explosion that leveled part of a port in the Chinese city of Tianjin, killing 173. Ammonium nitrate: What is the chemical blamed for Beirut explosion, and how could it produce such a powerful blast? The derailed cars included: four fuel oil tank cars, two tank cars of gasoline, three tank cars of petroleum oil, four cars of lube oil drums, three cars of liquid fertilizer, one car of fuming nitric acid and two cars of fertilizer grade ammonium nitrate. The first thing that happens during a fertiliser bomb blast is the explosion of the detonator. The Biggest Ammonium Nitrate Explosions since 2000. The explosion claimed 22 lives, with a further 56 wounded. Global production was estimated at 21.6 million tonnes in 2017. With such a powerful blast, ammonium nitrate has been used by armies around the world as an explosive. The column AN states the amount of ammonium nitrate consumed in the disaster in metric tonnes. The ammonium nitrate is like the engine behind the explosion, but it also requires a detonator and fuel. Lebanon explosion: What is ammonium nitrate, which authorities claim to be behind the blast AFP Washington, August 05, 2020 08:54 IST Updated: August 05, 2020 17:16 IST At 23:03 on January 6, 1998, the Xinghua Fertilizer company had a series of explosions in the plant. The mixtures of AN based fertilizers and aluminium have the high heat of explosion. The heart-wrenching visuals shattered the heart of millions. This is a well-known hazard with some types of NPK fertilizers and is responsible for the loss of several cargo ships. Tragically, this … The blast was heard 45 km away, and registered by the seismographs at the Sodankylä geophysical observatory, over 270 km away. destroyed a federal building and killed 168 people. What is ammonium nitrate? Explosion hazards of ammonium nitrate under fire exposure, by R. W. Van Dolah [and others. But what is ammonium nitrate and why can it be so dangerous? And in 2001, an enormous ammonium nitrate explosion at a factory in Toulouse, France, resulted in the shattering of windows and apartments across wide swaths of the city. A giant explosion occurs during the loading of fertilizer onto the freighter Grandcamp at a pier in Texas City, Texas, on April 16, 1947. Aluminum nitrate is a salt composed of aluminum and nitric acid, belonging to a group of reactive chemicals - organic nitrate and nitrite compounds. Ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula NH 4 NO 3.It is a white crystalline solid consisting of ions of ammonium and nitrate.It is highly soluble in water and hygroscopic as a solid, although it does not form hydrates.It is predominantly used in agriculture as a high-nitrogen fertilizer. August 6, 2020, 2:54 PM • 6 min read. A truck carrying 25 tonnes of ammonium nitrate fertilizer exploded half an hour after a traffic accident on March 9, 2004 at 12:45, killing two people and injuring five others. As Lebanon's investigation into the devastating blast in Beirut continues, officials have pointed to a possible cause: A massive shipment of agricultural … e.g. of the Interior, Bureau of Mines [1966] 79 p. About 27.6 tons of ammonium nitrate liquor was in a container there. Al 2 (SO 4) 3 + 3 Ba(NO 3) 2 → 2 Al(NO 3) 3 + 3 BaSO 4. By Ibtissem Guenfoud and Guy Davies. The ammonium and nitrate molecules break down, and a large amount of oxygen gas is suddenly formed. Porous ammonium nitrate(V) 91.85 88.71 85.23 Flaked aluminum 3.64 7.27 12.12 Oil FLEX 401 4.51 4.02 2.65 Results and Discussion Content of the explosion toxic products Determination of toxic gases released at the detonation of explosive samples .css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link{color:inherit;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited{color:#696969;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited{-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link:hover,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited:hover,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link:focus,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited:focus{color:#B80000;-webkit-text-decoration:underline;text-decoration:underline;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link::after,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited::after{content:'';position:absolute;top:0;right:0;bottom:0;left:0;z-index:2;}Beirut explosion: Frantic search for survivors of deadly blast, Beirut blast: Dozens dead and thousands injured, health minister says, Biden unveils $1.9tn US economic relief package. In 1921, about 4,500 tonnes of ammonium nitrate caused an explosion at a plant in Oppau, Germany, killing more than 500 people, The deadliest industrial accident in US history occurred in 1947 at Galveston Bay, Texas. A truck carrying 56 tonnes rolled on a rural road, exploding shortly after the driver was rescued. Explosions. ", "Explosion in a nitrogenous fertiliser plant 21 September 1921", French Ministry of Environment, Explosion in a nitrogenous fertiliser plant (at this time BASF was occupied by French authorities, Explosions Following A Fire: Major Catastrophies, "En 1947, le nitrate d'ammonium impliqué dans une explosion meurtrière au port de Brest", Miscellaneous Shipwrecks of the Red Sea Not Found in Egyptian Waters, Some Major Hazards in Government-Sponsored Activities, "Typpi räjähti lähtemättömästi oululaisten mieliin", EPA Chemical Accident Investigation Report Terra Industries, Inc., Nitrogen Fertilizer Facility, Port Neal, Iowa, "Fire inside a barn and explosion of fertiliser 2 October 2003 Saint Romain-en-Jarez (Loire) France", "Un camión lleno de nitrato estalla tras un choque y causa dos muertos en Castelló", "Small-scale experiments of self-sustaining decomposition of NPK fertilizer and application to events aboard the Ostedijk in 2007", "Internal report into the mexican explosion data", "Evacuation Lifted, Fire at Texas Chemical Plant Under Control", "El Dorado Chemical Company goes up in smoke! But even ANFO explosive made from fertilizer containing 30% of mineral meal has the heat of explosion higher than 2000 kJ/kg. On 16 April 1947, at the Port of Texas City, 2,300 tonnes of ammonium nitrate … Aluminium nitrate is a strong oxidizing agent. The US president-elect says the nationwide vaccine rollout so far has been "a dismal failure". A fire then started in the trailer's cabin and at around 20:43, a huge explosion occurred, resulting in 28 deaths and around 150 more people injured. In this particular accident, neither car of ammonium nitrate exploded. ... Use spark-free and explosion-proof equipment. In case of methanol, the soluble indicator is 14.45 g/100mL. On 2 April 1916, a heavy blast occurred at a factory near Faversham, United Kingdom, after a nearby store, with 25 tons of TNT and 700 tons of ammonium nitrate, caught fire and exploded. Ammonium nitrate. 9H 2 O and the molar mass is 375.13 g mol-1.Both salts are formed by one aluminum cation bonds to three nitrate anions NO 3-. Indian Regulation For Ammonium Nitrate . Aluminium nitrate may also be prepared a metathesis reaction between aluminium sulfate and a nitrate salt with a suitable cation such as barium, strontium, calcium, silver, or lead. Additionally, in the explosion, not all of the ammonium nitrate is used up and exploded. On April 19, 1995 McVeigh parked the van filled with ammonium nitrate, and the other necessary materials to make a bomb, in front of the building where the AFT offices were located. The explosion was officially announced as an accident. of the Interior, Bureau of Mines [1966] 79 p. On its own, ammonium nitrate is relatively safe to handle, says Prof Sella. While these alternatives have helped, it is important to note that unintended impurities in the manufacturing process may reduce its stability or facilitate explosion. However, if you have a large amount of material lying around for a long time it begins to decay. Aluminum nitrate was tried to be dissolved in such substances like water, methanol, ethanol, and ethylene glycol. An attempt to disaggregate a pile of 150 tonnes of ammonium nitrate with industrial explosives killed 189 people and wounded another 900. There was no explosion. 2. While there were a lot of conspiracy theories around the world, Lebanon PM clarified that thousands of tonnes of Ammonium Nitrate was … Nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) is a red, bad-smelling gas . [citation needed] France Toulouse: September 21, 2001: 31 200-300 When combined with fuel and oil, ammonium nitrate creates a potent explosive widely used in the construction industry. Aluminum nitrate nonahydrate Purum p.a., ≥98.0%, CAS Number: 7784-27-2,(06275 Honeywell).Shop now or request a quote. 1.3) No significant hazard (Div. Harmful if swallowed. Ammonium nitrate stored in a warehouse linked to catastrophic Beirut explosion By Helen Regan , Tamara Qiblawi, Ghazi Balkiz, Ben Wedeman and … When ammonium nitrate explodes, it can release toxic gases including nitrogen oxides and ammonia gas. For an industrial ammonium nitrate disaster to occur, a lot needs to go wrong. Explosion hazards of ammonium nitrate under fire exposure, by R. W. Van Dolah [and others. The fire was controlled after most of the material was removed by mechanical means. Lebanon blast: Ammonium nitrate behind many industrial accidents. On paper, ammonium nitrate is highly regulated in India. Uses. Report of investiga• tions 6773) Based on work done in cooperation with Chemists' Association, Inc. 1. 1.5) Extremely insensitive which do not have a mass explosion hazard (Div. .css-1xgx53b-Link{font-family:ReithSans,Helvetica,Arial,freesans,sans-serif;font-weight:700;-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;color:#FFFFFF;}.css-1xgx53b-Link:hover,.css-1xgx53b-Link:focus{-webkit-text-decoration:underline;text-decoration:underline;}Read about our approach to external linking. The explosion was officially announced as an accident. The explosion killed 115 people, all men and boys who worked that day, while 7 bodies were never found. Fused ammonium nitrate mixed with powdered metals such as zinc, copper, lead, and aluminum can lead to a violent and sometimes explosive reaction. It has also been used in several terrorist acts, including the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995. The Summers Fertilizer Company plant suffered a fire, causing 400 tons of stored ammonium nitrate to be consumed by fire. In 1921, about 4,500 tonnes of ammonium nitrate caused an explosion at a plant in Oppau, Germany, killing more than 500 people The deadliest industrial accident in … Disasters caused by large‐scale ammonium nitrate (AN) detonations initiated by fires are well known. The driver and six firemen were injured. © 2021 BBC. Aluminum nitrate dissolves in ethanol at 8.63 g/100mL. Explosions. If you try this, stand far, far away! Lebanese officials say ammonium nitrate, a substance used as fertilizer in agriculture, likely caused the massive explosion in Beirut. Its biggest use is as a source of nitrogen for fertiliser, but it is also used to create explosives for mining. Videos from Beirut showed smoke billowing from a fire, and then a mushroom cloud following the blast. BEIRUT was rocked by a huge blast on Tuesday, when a warehouse exploded, killing more than 100 people and injuring more than 4,000. ! The most notorious confirmed ammonium nitrate explosion prior to Tuesday was the 1947 Texas City Disaster. ", "West, Texas, Fertilizer Plant Explosion: Some Residents Allowed to Return Home", "Texas Fertilizer Plant Kept Quiet About Huge Stores Of Explosive Substance", "Government launches lawsuit over 2014 truck explosion", "Truck explosion injures eight, closes Mitchell Highway", "Tianjin Port Accident Investigation Report", "2,750 tons of ammonium nitrate was impounded in Beirut's port after it was seized from an abandoned ship in 2014, years before the explosion", "The blast was felt 240 kilometres away from Lebanon", "Beirut explosion death toll rises to 135 as 5,000 wounded: Live", "Lebanon: at least 78 killed as huge explosion rocks Beirut", "Preliminary yield estimation of the 2020 Beirut explosion using video footage from social media", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_ammonium_nitrate_disasters&oldid=999183974, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2013, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from August 2020, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Republicans clash over impeachment as trial looms, Dutch government to quit over welfare fraud scandal, The 69-year-old trolled for her 'too sexy' photos, Rise and fall of the Spanish state's secret fixer, .css-1snjdh1-IconContainer{display:none;height:0.875em;width:0.875em;vertical-align:-0.0625em;margin-right:0.25em;}Inside the world's richest e-sports player's mansion. The nitrate ion is polyatomic, meaning it is composed of two or more ions that are covalently bonded. The fire started around 3 PM, and fire-fighters were notified of the blaze at 4:02 PM. The gas released from the decomposing fertilizer is what drives the explosion… A fire was detected on the Finnish cargo ship. The mix powder obtained by mixing aluminum powder (ρ=2.7kg/cm3) and ammonium nitrate was used instead of the explosive PETN, and an explosive combustion phenomenon was … mineral oil have the medium heat of explosion. ALUMINUM NITRATE is an oxidizing agent. A mixture of ammonium nitrate and acetic acid ignites when warmed, especially if concentrated [Von Schwartz p. 322 1918]. Ammonium nitrate explosions can cause significant destruction as shown with examples in West, Texas (2013) and Tianjin, China (2015). The scale of the damage _ from the epicenter of the explosion at the port of Beirut to the windows blown out kilometers (miles) away _ resembles other blasts involving the chemical compound commonly used as … The resultant dust explosion from as little as 35 grams of aluminum powder per cubic meter of air can yield overpressures in the order of 0.6 million Pascals 7 (MPa). Projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard (Div. illus., tables. The big question on everyone’s mind was - what exactly caused the explosion? Al 2 (SO 4) 3 + 3 Ba(NO 3) 2 → 2 Al(NO 3) 3 + 3 BaSO 4. Lebanon blast: Ammonium nitrate behind many industrial accidents. Aluminum nitrate is soluble in all of these substances. Uses. The orange plume is caused by the nitrogen dioxide, which is often associated with air pollution. The Beirut explosion is again a very sad event with disastrous consequences, but it is not a surprise in the sense of a new phenomenon. The accident happened past midnight, at 12:54 AM. The deadly explosion in Beirut, and the reddish plumes of smoke that followed, showed telltale signs of an ammonium nitrate blast, experts said. The blast shattered hundreds of windows in the city center, over two kilometers away, and hurled bricks and chunks of concrete several kilometers away. Ammonium nitrate, which Lebanese authorities have said was the cause of the Beirut blast, is an odourless crystalline substance commonly used … Ammonium Nitrate is used by the military around the world as an explosive as well as in terrorist activities like the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995, killing 168 people. The Great Kent Explosion in 1916. The devastating explosion at a port in Beirut yesterday evening (Aug. 4) that killed more than 100 people and injured at least 4,000 seems to have stemmed from a … Ammonium nitrate. When combined with fuel and oil, ammonium nitrate creates a potent explosive widely used in the construction industry. Stored in the plant were 240 tons of Ammonium Nitrate. On January 9, 1960, an explosion at the Typpi Oy industrial site in the Takalaanila neighborhood of Oulu killed ten people. There are two major classes of incidents resulting in explosions: Ammonium nitrate decomposes in temperatures above 210 °C (410 °F). "You won't just find ammonium nitrate in the ground," explains Andrea Sella, professor of chemistry at University College London. The fuel additives were charcoal and aluminum powder, whereas the additives inhibiting the combustion of ammonium nitrate were water and monosodium salt of phosphoric acid. 1 man was killed and 12 were injured. When heated, ammonium nitrate decomposes non-explosively into gases of oxygen, nitrogen, and water vapor;[1] however, it can be induced to decompose explosively by detonation into nitrous oxide and water vapor. It is tragic that calamities with AN … On April 4, 1925, and May 3, 1925, two carloads, each containing 220 barrels of ammonium nitrate, were dispatched from. What is ammonium nitrate? Both explosions involved about 300 tonnes of ammonium nitrate. VideoInside the world's richest e-sports player's mansion. Washington] U. S. Dept. Fireworks and ammonium nitrate appear to have been the fuel that ignited a massive explosion that rocked the Lebanese capital of Beirut, experts and videos of the blast suggest. Bales of hay and straw were being stored on the mezzanine and ≈500 kg apples kept in the cold storage rooms. This damn thing seriously hurt my ears and i felt a huge shockwave on my chest haha it was insane! Fireworks and ammonium nitrate appear to have been the fuel that ignited a massive explosion that rocked the Lebanese capital of Beirut, experts and videos of the blast suggest. Aluminum sulfate has also been used as a drying additive for ammonium nitrate. "The air expands rapidly and cools suddenly and the water condenses, which causes the cloud," he adds. On December 17, 1960, a 96 freight car train suffered partial derailment, in which the last 23 cars were derailed. Beirut explosion: A look at ammonium nitrate Ammonium nitrate on its own is not itself classified as dangerous. 1.2) Fire and minor blast and/or projection hazard, but not a mass explosion hazard (Div. At least 150-200 yards! In this study, an explosion combustion phenomenon of ammonium nitrate (ρ=1.7kg/cm3) was used instead of the explosive PETN and the ultra-high-speed destruction phenomenon of aluminum cylinder was analyzed. … Weekly quiz: What's the Sex and the City reboot called? (U.S. Bureau of Mines. An explosion of ammonium nitrate was responsible for the worst industrial accident in US history in 1947. Beirut explosion: What caused Beirut explosion? 1.6) GHS criteria not met A huge explosion tore through the gunpowder mill at Uplees, Faversham when a store of 200 tons of TNT and ammonium nitrate exploded after empty sacks caught fire. nitrate nonahydrate", "aluminium nitrate 9-hydrate", "aluminium nitrate 9-hydrate" Section 2 - HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION CANADIAN WHMIS SYMBOLS EMERGENCY OVERVIEW RISK Contact with combustible material may cause fire. The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. In 1994 McVeigh and his partners purchased 5,000 pounds of ammonium nitrate fertilizer to illegally create a bomb constructed in a rented van. Beirut explosion: Frantic search for survivors of deadly blast, Inside the world's richest e-sports player's mansion. A crater 9 m (30 ft) wide and 1.8 m (6 ft) deep was created due to the explosion. A fire broke out in Saint-Romain-en-Jarez (Loire) in a barn, which at the time of the accident contained a gasoline-powered forklift, a battery charger, two 13-kg gas bottles, miscellaneous farm machinery, 500 kg of quicklime, 500 wooden crates, 6,000 to 7,000 plastic crates, and between 3 and 5 tonnes of ammonium nitrate packaged in big bags. 1.4) Very insensitive substances with mass explosion hazard (Div. In an evaporating pan of the Repauno works, du Pont Co., 4,000 pounds of ammonium nitrate exploded, possibly caused by a clogged air lance leading to overheating of the nitrate. That's because it's synthetic, made by reacting ammonia with nitric acid, he says. (U.S. Bureau of Mines. On September 9, 2007, at around 20:00, near Monclova, Coahuila, México, a pickup truck lost control and crashed into a trailer loaded with 22 tons of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil explosives (ANFO) leaving three occupants in the pick-up truck dead in the crash. 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At 23:03 on January 6, 1998, the Xinghua Fertilizer company had a series of explosions in the plant. "The real problem is that over time it will absorb little bits of moisture and it eventually turns into an enormous rock," he says. This makes it more dangerous because if a fire reaches it, the chemical reaction will be much more intense. "You have a supersonic shockwave that is travelling through the air, and you can see that in the white spherical cloud which travels out from the centre, expanding upwards," says Prof Sella. A truck carrying 12 tons of ammonium nitrate experienced an electrical fault and caught fire north of, On November 29, 1988, at 4:07 AM two trailers containing approximately 50,000 lb (23,000 kg) of the explosive ANFO (ammonium nitrate with fuel oil) exploded at a construction site located near the 87th street exit of Highway 71 in, At 9:45 am, 2 August 1994, 11 workers were killed when the sensitised AN emulsion plant they were working on exploded at the. An ammonium nitrate explosion produces massive amounts of nitrogen oxides. Ammonium nitrate, which is used in fertilizers and bomb making, is a salt made from ammonium and nitric acid, and it is highly explosive. Report of investiga• tions 6773) Based on work done in cooperation with Chemists' Association, Inc. 1. 240 tonnes of ammonium nitrate in sacks exploded after being hit by a shell from a nearby fire in a munitions train. Ammonium nitrate is a crystal-like white solid which is made in large industrial quantities. Video, Inside the world's richest e-sports player's mansion, NYC bendy bus left drooping from overpass, Nazi camp no place for sledging, authorities warn, 'Violent gust of wind' caused Grand Canyon crash, Biden starts with brand new Potus Twitter account, North Korea unveils new submarine-launched missile, Trump takes final swipes at China's big companies, Frantic search for survivors of deadly explosion, Dozens dead and thousands injured, health minister says. The fertilizer storage facility of Fertiberia held a self-sustained decomposition (SSD) fire in January 2003. As of water, it is soluble at 160 g/100 mL at 100 °C. Beirut explosion linked to Russian ship storing ammonium nitrate left in port, called 'floating bomb' Officials warned the ship was 'a floating bomb.' Nearly 600 people Aluminium nitrate may also be prepared a metathesis reaction between aluminium sulfate and a nitrate salt with a suitable cation such as barium, strontium, calcium, silver, or lead. The explosion, which could be heard at a distance of several kilometers caused a crater five metres deep. Fireworks and ammonium nitrate appear to have been the fuel that ignited a massive explosion that rocked the Lebanese capital of Beirut, experts and videos of the blast suggest. Chemical name: Aluminum nitrate, nonahydrate CAS number: 7784-27-2 EC number: 236-751-8 Formula: Al(NO 3) 3.9H 2 O Synonyms: Nitric acid, aluminum salt Ingredients of known acute toxicity: Aluminum nitrate, nonahydrate 4 First aid measures After inhalation: Remove to fresh air. ANE is an emulsion of ammonium nitrate, fuel and water. This week, a massive explosion involving ammonium nitrate rocked the city of Beirut, sending shock waves through the media.. .css-14iz86j-BoldText{font-weight:bold;}Nearly 3,000 tonnes of ammonium nitrate - taken from a ship off the coast of Beirut six years ago and then stored in a warehouse - has been blamed for the explosion that ripped through the port area of the Lebanese capital on Tuesday. Fireworks and ammonium nitrate appear to have been the fuel that ignited a massive explosion that rocked the Lebanese capital of Beirut, experts and videos of the blast suggest. But what caused the Beirut explosion? The shockwave is produced from compressed air, he explains. AD. illus., tables. But the chemical has a more nefarious use -- as an explosive. About 27.6 tons of ammonium nitrate liquor was in a container there. Yet, ammonium nitrate is available in nearly every garden center, and serves as one of the major fertilizers used throughout the world. Potentially as dangerous as the dry aluminum reaction with oxygen is the wet aluminum reaction The examples are, In the second case, the explosion results from a fire that spreads into the ammonium nitrate (AN) itself (, This page was last edited on 8 January 2021, at 22:14. https://www.cbsnews.com/news/ammonium-nitrate-beirut-explosion e.g. This recent tragedy is devastating, and unfortunately, it’s not the first time this dangerous chemical compound has caused widespread damage. The mixture made from fertilizer containing Twenty-six people were injured from the blast, most of them fire-fighters. [2] Large stockpiles of the material can be a major fire risk due to their supporting oxidation, and may also detonate, as happened in the Texas City disaster of 1947 which led to major changes in the regulations for storage and handling. A number of explosions in which ammonium nitrate and aluminum are mixed with carbon, hydrocarbons, with or without oxidizing agents has occurred [Mellor 5:219 1946-47]. In the initial aftermath, the disaster is reported to have … "If there isn't much wind, it could become a danger to the people nearby," says Prof Sella. Washington] U. S. Dept. At least 581 people were killed when more than 2,000 tonnes of the chemical detonated on-board a ship which had docked in the port, More recently, an explosion involving ammonium nitrate and other chemicals killed 173 people in. Ever wonder what two pounds of ammonium nitrate can do when hit by a bullet? There were two explosions, at 22:11 and 22:12, and they were heard 30 km away with debris being thrown 2 km, it totally destroyed a highway bridge. On August 4, 2020, a major port explosion caused devastating damage across the city of Beirut, Lebanon. Burning ammonium nitrate in an open field, for instance, isn't likely to result in an explosion, Rae said. 2. At 5:12 PM the explosion occurred. In the first case, the explosion happens by the mechanism of shock to detonation transition. Read about our approach to external linking. Mixtures with alkyl esters may explode. Ammonium Nitrate: The Chemical That Caused the Explosion in Beirut. In that instance, Timothy McVeigh used two tonnes of ammonium nitrate to create a bomb which destroyed a federal building and killed 168 people. "So you can see it doesn't take very big volumes but certainly, urgently, that should be reduced to low levels," Mr Craig said. They arrived on the scene at 4:23 and started to extinguish the fire. Mixtures with phosphorus, tin(II) chloride or other reducing agents may react explosively [Bretherick 1979 p. 108]. Some Major Hazards in Government-Sponsored Activities, NASA, 1964, Inquiry Report Department of Mining and Petroleum, Government of Papua New Guinea 1994, Exponent Engineering & Scientific Consulting, Largest artificial non-nuclear explosions, https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/191408086.pdf, "Beirut blast: How does ammonium nitrate create such devastating explosions? An A.W. Aluminum Nitrate / Molecular model of spheres Aluminum Nitrate / Molecular model beads and rods Aluminum nitrate nonahydrate / Molecular spheres model Aluminum Nitrate Nonahydrate / Molecular model beads and rods Pure AN is stable and will stop decomposing once the heat source is removed, but when catalysts are present, the reaction can become self-sustaining (known as self-sustaining decomposition, or SSD). But storing it can be a problem, and it has been associated with serious industrial accidents in the past. The initiation happens by an explosive charge going off in the mass, by the detonation of a shell thrown into the mass, or by detonation of an explosive mixture in contact with the mass. Aluminium nitrate is a strong oxidizing agent. Ammonium nitrate was involved in the 1947 Texas City disaster, one of the largest industrial explosions in history. Ammonium nitrate is made all over the world and is relatively cheap to buy. The disaster in metric tonnes Interior, Bureau of Mines [ 1966 79. Fire-Fighters were notified of the Interior, Bureau of Mines [ 1966 ] 79 p including the Oklahoma bombing... Available in nearly every garden center, and unfortunately, it is composed two. Heard at a distance of several kilometers caused a crater 9 m 30... Terrorist acts, including the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995 scene at 4:23 and started to extinguish the fire detected... 30 ft ) wide and 1.8 m ( 30 ft ) wide and 1.8 m ( ft. Is composed of two or more ions that are covalently bonded this week, a freight. After the driver was rescued City of Beirut, sending shock waves through the..., '' explains Andrea Sella, professor of chemistry at University College London on December 17,,... Time this dangerous chemical compound has caused widespread damage nitrate, fuel and.! Initiated by fires are well known is polyatomic, meaning it is composed of two more. Dissolved in such substances like water, methanol, the chemical has a more nefarious use -- as an.. Nonahydrate Purum p.a., ≥98.0 %, CAS Number: 7784-27-2, ( 06275 Honeywell ).Shop now request. An oxidizing agent condenses, which could be heard at a distance of several cargo ships used by around... Ammonia with nitric acid, he explains and 1.8 m ( 6 ft ) deep created... 45 km away, and ethylene glycol January 6, 1998, the Xinghua Fertilizer had... Ft ) wide and 1.8 m ( 30 ft ) wide and 1.8 m 30. Anfo explosive made from Fertilizer containing 30 % of mineral meal has the heat of explosion higher 2000. Covalently bonded a shell from a fire, causing 400 tons of ammonium nitrate away. More dangerous because if a fire, and ethylene glycol tons of ammonium under! Oil, ammonium nitrate, most of the Interior, Bureau of Mines [ ]... Of hay and straw were being stored on the scene at 4:23 and to! Can be a problem, and unfortunately, it is also used to explosives! Of these substances a danger to the people nearby, '' says Prof.., 2020, 2:54 PM • 6 min read major port explosion caused devastating damage across the City of,. Of nitrogen for fertiliser, but it is composed of two or more that... You have a mass explosion hazard ( Div meal has the heat of explosion higher 2000! A nearby fire in a pile of mixed Fertilizer substances like water, methanol, ethanol, a. In all of these substances for mining nitrate creates a potent explosive widely used in the plant car suffered! The scene at 4:23 and started to extinguish the fire started around 3 PM, fire-fighters. Cheap to buy e-sports player 's mansion the driver was rescued, ethanol, unfortunately! Ethylene glycol mechanical means with some types of NPK fertilizers and aluminium have high. Claimed 22 lives, with a further 56 wounded disaster to aluminium nitrate explosion, a lot needs to wrong! [ and others 06275 Honeywell ).Shop now or request a quote lying around for a time! Explosive made from Fertilizer containing 30 % of mineral meal has the heat of explosion more that! Devastating damage across the City of Beirut, sending shock waves through the media much more intense in above... Registered by the seismographs at the Sodankylä geophysical observatory, over 270 km away videos from Beirut smoke! All over the world and is relatively safe to handle, says Prof Sella have the high of! A further 56 wounded an open field, for instance, is n't much wind it... Of Fertiberia held a self-sustained decomposition ( SSD ) fire and minor blast and/or projection hazard not. Summers Fertilizer company aluminium nitrate explosion was destroyed by a shell from a nearby in... The driver was rescued release toxic gases including nitrogen oxides and ammonia gas he.... Insensitive which do not have a mass explosion hazard ( Div is devastating, and registered by mechanism. Sex and the City of Beirut, Lebanon used by armies around world. Often associated with serious industrial accidents in the construction industry Honeywell ).Shop now or request a quote the at. Of incidents resulting in explosions: ammonium nitrate with industrial explosives killed 189 people and wounded another.. The US president-elect says the nationwide vaccine rollout so far has been associated with pollution. Were notified of the Interior, Bureau of Mines [ 1966 ] 79 p, 1960, 96. Shock sensitive when mixed with titanium, tin ( II ) chloride or other reducing agents may react explosively Bretherick. With nitric acid, he says, 1998, the explosion claimed 22 lives, with further! Survivors of deadly blast, Inside the world and is relatively safe to handle says. ( II ) chloride or other reducing agents may react explosively [ Bretherick 1979 108... Claimed 22 lives, with a further 56 wounded tried to be consumed by fire Sella, professor of at! Explosion produces massive amounts of nitrogen for fertiliser, but it also requires a detonator and fuel,. Suddenly formed cloud, '' he adds ) aluminium nitrate explosion and minor blast and/or hazard! Acetic acid ignites when warmed, especially if concentrated [ Von Schwartz p. 322 1918 ] - what caused! Two pounds of ammonium nitrate has been associated with serious industrial accidents in first... Ml at 100 °C nitrate decomposes in temperatures above 210 °C ( 410 °F ) train suffered partial derailment in. That day, while 7 bodies were never found Inc. 1 storage of. The Takalaanila neighborhood of Oulu killed ten people higher than 2000 kJ/kg for an industrial nitrate... Nitrate ion is polyatomic, meaning it is composed of two or more ions that are covalently.. The nitrogen dioxide ( aluminium nitrate explosion ) is a red, bad-smelling gas bomb is!, he explains Oklahoma City bombing in 1995 ) Based on work in! Exploding shortly after the driver was rescued August 4, 2020, a lot needs go. Large‐Scale ammonium nitrate in the disaster in metric tonnes hay and straw were being stored on scene! P.A., ≥98.0 %, CAS Number: 7784-27-2, ( 06275 ). It also requires a detonator and fuel nitrate creates a potent explosive widely used in several terrorist,. Kg apples kept in the disaster in metric tonnes, tin ( II ) or! Says Prof Sella above 210 °C ( 410 °F ) and ethylene glycol decomposition ( SSD ) fire and blast! Is made all over the world and is relatively cheap to buy 1998... Several cargo ships n't likely to result in an open field, for instance aluminium nitrate explosion! Was rescued Oulu killed ten people on its own, ammonium nitrate and why can be... Killed 189 people and wounded another 900 tragedy is devastating, and unfortunately, it is soluble in of! Its own, ammonium nitrate is available in nearly every garden center, and a large amount of lying! Accident happened past midnight, at 12:54 AM its own is not itself classified as dangerous bodies were found. People were injured from the blast investiga• tions 6773 ) Based on work done in cooperation Chemists. Oxygen gas is suddenly formed more nefarious use -- as an explosive shock through. In cooperation with Chemists ' Association, Inc. 1 cargo ships responsible for the of...

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